Main area of studySpin-off study nameYear started
Autism Autism (SCQ)2001
DAWBA2005
SRS (SRS, SRS-2 and SRS-3)2008 (phase 1), 2013 (phase 2), 2017 (phase 3)
Autism Speaks (GEMS)2009
Hyperactivity, ADHD SAIL2003
PHAD2003
EEG (NEAAT)2009
IDEAS2015
Anxiety Anxiety2000
ECHO2002
FLARe2019
Psychopathy traits DOH2003
MRI Conduct2005
Language developmentOSCCI2000 (phase 1) and 2003 (phase 2)
Stories (TEDS study, age 9)2002
SLQ (TEDS study, age 14)2008
Language telephone tests (TEDS study, age 14)2008
SLI2011
SLA2012
Cognitive abilities In-home tests (TEDS study, age 4)1998
LINCS2005
MRI Maths2005
Perception (TEDS study, age 19)2013
Spatial (Three consecutive TEDS studies, age 19-20: Bricks, Kings Challenge, Navigation)2015
Eating, diet, lifestyle, health Eating Study (Eating-1 and Eating-2)1998 (phase 1) and 2005 (phase 2)
Eating Questionnaire2005
Weight Discordance (Eating-3)2006
Stuttering2006
Twitter (Social Media)2012
Myopia2012
Fashion, Food and Music Preferences (FFMP, TEDS study, age 19)2015
Gene expressionRNA2007
Biomarkers2010
MZ discordance in achievement Diary2005
Nuffield2012
SiblingsYoung Sibs1997
Environmental riskE-Risk1998
Adolescent-parent attachmentAttachment2010
WellbeingWellbeing2011
Daily Mood2014

Anxiety

Study names:Anxiety,
Emotions and Development Study
Principal investigator:Patrick Bolton
Location:IOP (KCL)
Focus of study:Anxiety traits
Year(s) of study:2000 to 2002
Number of TEDS families:1169
TEDS cohorts:1994 and 1995
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • No TEDS 1st contact data
  • Medical exclusions and perinatal outliers
  • Unknown zygosity
  • E-Risk families
  • No TEDS data at 4
Selection criteria: Selection was based on a number of anxiety measures in the TEDS 4 year dataset. There were several sample groups, possibly including controls.
Data collection:Parent-completed booklets administered by post, followed up with telephone interviews.
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

Attachment

Study names:Attachment Study
Principal investigator:Pasco Fearon
Location:SGDP Centre, IOP (KCL) and Anna Freud Centre, London
(study staff operation from both locations)
Focus of study:Adolescent-parent attachment
Year(s) of study:2010 to 2012
Number of TEDS families:1265
TEDS cohorts:School cohorts 3 and 4
(twins born between September 1995 and December 1996)
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Inactive
  • Medical exclusions and special cases
  • Address and phone problems
  • E-Risk families
Selection criteria:
  • Same-sex twin pairs
  • Initial selection was families living in London or nearby counties (Middlesex, Kent, Surrey, East & West Sussex, Berks, Hants, Wilts, Bucks, Berks, Beds, Oxon, Herts, Essex, Cambs)
  • Later topped up with families having good rail links to London (Avon, West Midlands, other parts of the Midlands and the north and east of England)
Data collection:Parent and twin booklets sent by post.
In-person visits, either to the SGDP Centre or to the Anna Freud Centre or to the families' homes, for twin attachment interviews (with videos).
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

Autism

Study names:Autism Study,
SCQ study
Principal investigator:Francesca Happe and Greg Wallace
Location:IOP (KCL)
Focus of study:Autistic traits
Year(s) of study:2001
Number of TEDS families:352
(72 cases, 280 controls)
TEDS cohorts:All
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • E-Risk families
  • OSCCI families
  • ECHO families
  • No TEDS data at 4 (for controls)
Selection criteria:
  • Cases: twins known or suspected to have autism/ASD from parent reports
  • Controls: matched and unmatched categories based on 4 year data; also Downs syndrome twins
Data collection:Parents questionnaire (SCQ) administered by post or by phone
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

Autism Speaks

Study names:Autism Speaks,
GEMS
Principal investigator:Angelica Ronald
Location:Administered by TEDS
Focus of study:Autistic traits
Year(s) of study:2009
Number of TEDS families:298
(41 cases, 257 controls)
TEDS cohorts:All
Families excluded from sample: All groups:
  • Withdrawn
  • Ethnic origin not known to be white
  • English not the only language used at home
  • Overseas families
  • Address and phone problems
  • Special cases
  • DZ twins, or unknown sex/zygosity
Additional exclusions for control groups:
  • No TEDS CAST data at 8
  • No TEDS 1st Contact data
  • Suspected or known ASD cases
  • Medical exclusions and perinatal outliers
  • Birthweight difference between twins >1SD
Selection criteria:
  • MZ
  • Cases: twins with autism/ASD confirmed by TEDS study (DAWBA or SRS). Two groups: concordant and discordant for ASD.
  • Controls: selected on the basis of 8 year CAST scales. Four groups: discordant social, discordant non-social, discordant communication, concordant low-CAST.
  • Control group 6 (concordant low-CAST): addresses in London and home counties only
Data collection:Families visited the SGDP Centre to give samples of blood and saliva (for DNA and RNA)
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

Biomarkers

Study names:Biomarkers
Principal investigator:Andrea Danese
Location:Administered by TEDS
Focus of study:Gene expression
Year(s) of study:2010 to 2011
Number of TEDS families:798
TEDS cohorts:School cohort 2 (twins born between September 1994 and August 1995)
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn families
  • Inactive families and special cases
  • Address and phone problems
  • Medical exclusions, and other medical conditions considered case-by-case
  • E-Risk families
  • Analysis exclusions (no 1st Contact data, perinatal outliers, unknown zygosity, non-white ethnic origin, home language not English)
Selection criteria:
  • Same-sex twin pairs
  • Families living in London or in south and east England (as far west as Somerset, Avon, Glos and Worcs, and as far north as W Midlands, Leics, Warks, Northants and Norfolk)
Data collection:

After an initial mailing of an information pack with consent form, families were contacted by phone to establish verbal consent and for health screening.
Suitable families were sent twin questionnaires and kits for collecting saliva samples, all of which were returned by post.

Data available in TEDS:Yes (questionnaires only).
The twin questionnaire data were entered in TEDS, and are available in a double entered dataset.
Documents: Information sheet and twin questionnaire sent with the initial pack.
Annotated twin questionnaire showing dataset variable coding.

Daily Mood

Study names:Daily Mood
Principal investigator:Yao Zheng (supervised by Robert Plomin)
Location:Administered by TEDS
Focus of study:Wellbeing/mood
Year(s) of study:2014
Number of TEDS families:610
TEDS cohorts:School cohort 4 (twins born between September and December 1996)
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn families
  • Inactive families and special cases
  • Address and phone problems
  • Overseas families
  • Medical exclusions and special cases
  • Unknown zygosity
Selection criteria:
  • Same-sex twin pairs
Data collection:

On line and verbal consents were collected from the parents of the selected families.
Twins of the consenting families were then invited to log in daily, at roughly the same time each day, for 40 consecutive days. On each of these days, twins were asked to complete a brief on line questionnaire relating to their moods. The same 10 items were presented every day, although the order of the items was randomised each day. The questionnaire could only be completed between 3pm and 3am each day.

Data available in TEDS:Yes.
The electronic web data were collected on the TEDS web server, and are available in a double entered dataset.
Yao Zheng should be included as co-author in any collaborative project.
Documents: Information sheet as linked to the twin web consent page.
Annotated twin web questionnaire showing dataset variable coding.

DAWBA

Study names:DAWBA (Development and Well Being Assessment),
Social Skills and Relationships
Principal investigator:Francesca Happe
Location:Administered by TEDS
Focus of study:Autism
Year(s) of study:2005 to 2007
Number of TEDS families:433
TEDS cohorts:All
Families excluded from sample: Withdrawn families
Selection criteria:
  • EITHER autism/ASD known or suspected from parent reports
  • OR possibility of autism/ASD suggested by high 8 year CAST scores
Data collection:Parent telephone interviews conducted using the DAWBA instrument
Data available in TEDS:Yes.
The data from the DAWBA instrument were extracted by Prof. Robert Goodman, and are available in a double entered twin dataset. However, the variables are not documented, and this dataset may be of little use in analysis except to researchers familiar with the DAWBA instrument.
In addition, on the basis of the DAWBA data, each twin was diagnosed by a clinician and assigned various categories of ASD/autism/Aspergers (or unaffected). These diagnosis categories form the basis of the dawbar1/2 variables that have been used in conjunction with TEDS data for ASD-related analysis.
Francesca Happe should be consulted about sharing of these data.
Documents: Information sheet sent with the initial postal invitation.

Diary

Study names:Diary Study
Principal investigator:Kathryn Asbury
Location:Administered by TEDS
Focus of study:School environments and achievement
Year(s) of study:2005
Number of TEDS families:145
(25 in feasibility study, 120 in pilot study)
TEDS cohorts:School cohort 2 (twins born between Sep-94 and Aug-95)
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Medical exclusions
  • Families involved in any other current spin-off study
  • Overseas families
  • Phone problems
Selection criteria:
  • MZ twin pairs
  • Both twins known to be taught in the same classroom
Data collection:Twin telephone interviews daily over a period of two weeks (10 consecutive school days)
Data available in TEDS:Yes
The data were entered in a TEDS database by the interviewers themselves (via a web application). These data are available in a double entered twin dataset.
Kathryn Asbury should be included as co-author in any collaborative project.
Documents: Script showing the questions asked in twin interviews each day.
Annotated script showing dataset variable coding.

DOH

Study names:DOH (Department of Health) Study,
Psychopathy study,
Thinking and Feeling study
Principal investigator:Essi Viding
Location:Administered by TEDS
Focus of study:Psychopathic traits
Year(s) of study:2003 to 2004
Number of TEDS families:1645
(769 cases, 876 controls)
TEDS cohorts:1994 and 1995
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Medical exclusions
  • E-Risk families
  • OSCCI families
  • Overseas families
  • Phone problems
  • No TEDS teacher data at 7
  • Unknown twin sex
Selection criteria:
  • Cases: high scores in 7 year teacher callous-unemotional scale
  • Controls: low scores in 7 year teacher callous-unemotional scale
Data collection:Parents and twins interviewed by telephone
(administered by TEDS callers)
Data available in TEDS:Yes
The interview data were coded and entered in TEDS, and are available in a double entered twin dataset.
Essi Viding should be included as co-author in any collaborative project.
Documents: Script showing the questions asked in twin interviews.
Scoring rules for the Theory of Mind, Moral and Conventional, and Emotion Attribution measures in the twin interviews.
Annotated script showing dataset variable coding.

Eating Questionnaire

Study names:Eating Questionnaire
Principal investigator:Jane Wardle
Location:Administered by TEDS, data sent to UCL.
Focus of study:Eating/diet/weight
Year(s) of study:2005
Number of TEDS families:12212
TEDS cohorts:All
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Inactive
  • Address Problems
Selection criteria:

The questionnaire was sent to the entire sample of contactable TEDS families.

Data collection:Parent questionnaire sent by mail.
Data available in TEDS:Yes.
The bulk of the questionnaires were entered by scanning, carried out by a company that returned the electronic raw data to TEDS. The data are available in a double entered twin dataset.
(Questionnaires that were returned late were not scanned or entered in TEDS, but were forwarded directly to Jane Wardle's team.)
Any collaborative project should involve Jane Wardle's research team at UCL.
Documents: Questionnaire, completed by parents.
Annotated questionnaire showing dataset variable coding.

Eating Study

Study names:Eating Study,
Eating-1 (phase 1),
Eating-2 (phase 2)
Principal investigator:Jane Wardle
Location:University College, London
Focus of study:Eating/diet/weight
Year(s) of study:1998 to 2005
(Phase 1: 1998-99; Phase 2: 2005)
Number of TEDS families:861 in phase 1 (531 controls, 330 cases),
204 in phase 2 (109 controls, 95 cases)
TEDS cohorts:1994, 1995
Families excluded from sample:

Exclusion criteria not recorded for phase 1. Phase 2 families were a subset of the phase 1 families, with these exclusions:

  • Withdrawn
  • Medical exclusions
  • Not visited in phase 1
Selection criteria:
  • Phase 1 cases: 3 and 4 year parent weights overweight/obese
  • Phase 1 controls: 3 and 4 year parent weights normal
  • Phase 2: subset of phase 1 cases and controls (see exclusions above)
Data collection:Home visits for face-to-face testing.
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

ECHO

Study names:ECHO (Emotions, Cognitions, Heredity and Outcome)
Principal investigator:Thalia Eley
Location:SGDP Centre, IOP (KCL)
Focus of study:Anxiety
Year(s) of study:2002 to 2005
(Phase 1: 2002-03; Phase 2: 2004-05)
Number of TEDS families:374
(307 cases, 67 controls)
TEDS cohorts:1994, 1995
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Medical exclusions
  • E-Risk families
  • OSCCI families
  • No TEDS parent data at 7
Selection criteria:
  • Address in south-east England
  • Cases: high scores in 7 year parent anxiety scales
  • Controls: low scores in 7 year parent anxiety scales
Data collection:Families visited the SGDP Centre for face-to-face testing.
DNA collected on visit.
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

EEG

Study names:EEG (electroencephalogram study),
NEAAT (Neurophysiology of Attention and Activity in Twins),
Centre Study
Principal investigator:Grainne McLoughlin
Location:SGDP Centre, IOP (KCL)
Focus of study:ADHD
Year(s) of study:2009 to 2010
Number of TEDS families:301
(230 cases, 71 controls)
TEDS cohorts:All
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Address and phone problems
  • Overseas families
  • E-Risk families
  • SRS families
  • Autism Speaks families
  • Previously refused to give DNA samples
  • Medical and other special cases
Selection criteria:
  • Address in south-east England given higher priority (families from further afield included where necessary)
  • Cases (4 groups): MZ and DZ, concordant and discordant for ADHD, based on TEDS data at various ages
  • Controls (2 groups): MZ and DZ, no ADHD indications
Data collection:Families visited the SGDP Centre for face-to-face testing, including EEG measurements and questionnaires.
DNA (blood and saliva) collected on visit.
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

E-Risk

Study names:E-Risk (Environment-Risk),
TEDS-Environment

Includes sub-sample studies:
Germ-Fighter Study (150 families, in 2009),
Peers Study (87 families, in 2007)
Principal investigator:Terrie Moffitt and Avshalom Caspi
Location:SGDP Centre, IOP (KCL)
Focus of study:Environmental risk
Year(s) of study:1998 onwards
Number of TEDS families:1116
TEDS cohorts:1994, 1995
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • No TEDS 1st Contact data
Selection criteria:
  • Same-sex twin pairs
  • Cases (high risk): mother had her first child when she was 20 years or younger
  • Controls: mother ages representative of general population
Data collection:Home visits at several ages for face-to-face testing.
DNA collected during visits.
Teacher questionnaires at several ages; school visits for testing involving teachers at age 12.
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

Fashion, Food and Music Preferences

Study names:Fashion, Food and Music Preferences (FFMP),
Fashion web study
Principal investigator:Andrea Smith (UCL) compiled the measures.
The study was administered in TEDS with Robert Plomin as PI.
Location:Administered at the SGDP Centre, IOP (KCL),
in collaboration with Andrea Smith (UCL)
Focus of study:Twin preferences for types of fashion, food and music
Year(s) of study:2015
Number of TEDS families:3166
TEDS cohorts:School cohort 3
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Medical exclusions
  • Twins uncontactable by mail or email
Selection criteria: All twins in this cohort were invited.
Data collection: Web questionnaire, administered by TEDS and treated as a main TEDS study.
Data available in TEDS:Yes.
This sub-study has been treated as a major TEDS study, forming part of the 18 year dataset.
Andrea Smith (UCL) should be included as a co-author in any collaborative project.
Documents:See the 18 year study page for full documentation.

FLARe

Study names:FLARe (Fear Learning and Anxiety Response)
Principal investigator:Thalia Eley
Location:SGDP Centre, IOP (KCL)
Focus of study:Anxiety responses
Year(s) of study:2019
Number of TEDS families:2957
TEDS cohorts:All
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • No TEDS-21 data
  • Specific medical conditions such as epilepsy, heart problems, neurological conditions
  • Twins without viable email addresses
  • Twins living outside the UK
Selection criteria: Twin pairs were selected in which both twins had completed phases 1 and 2 of TEDS21 prior to October 2018 (the TEDS21 study was still in its closing stages when FLARe started).
Data collection:Mobile phone app, using headphones, and involving responses to fear-conditioning stimuli.
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

IDEAS

Study names:IDEAS (Individual Differences in EEG in Young Adults Study)
Principal investigator:Grainne McLoughlin
Location:SGDP Centre, IOP (KCL)
Focus of study:ADHD and its overlap with ASD
Year(s) of study:2015 to 2019
Number of TEDS families:1154
TEDS cohorts:All
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Severe medical conditions and special cases
  • Uncontactable twins
  • Twins living outside the UK
  • E-Risk families, except with prior agreement
Selection criteria: Families who previously participated in the NEATT/EEG study (2009-2010) and/or in the SRS study (2008-2010) supplemented by new families in which one or both twins had high scores in measures of ADHD or ASD traits.
Data collection:EEG measurements using mobile equipment, administered in visits to the twins' homes or in visit of twins to the SGDP Centre. Also, in-person interviews and questionnaires (for twins, not parents).
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

In-Home Study

Study names:In-Home Study, 4 Year In-Home Testing
Principal investigator:Robert Plomin
Location:SGDP Centre, IOP (KCL)
Focus of study:Language and cognitive testing
Year(s) of study:1998 to 2001
Number of TEDS families:992
Note that this was effectively treated as a main TEDS study, even though it involved only a subsample of the families.
TEDS cohorts:All
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Medical exclusions and known hearing problems
  • Address and phone problems
  • Twins living outside the UK
  • No 1st Contact data
Selection criteria: Selected families had (recently) completed the 4 Year booklets. Selection was then based on the language and cognitive data from these booklets. Families were selected as 'lows' if either or both twins met specific criteria for low-scoring in either the Parca cognitive tests or the MCDI language measures. In addition to the 'lows', some 'control' families were selected in which neither twin met the 'low' criteria. Further explanation of selection can be found on the in-home study page.
Data collection: A battery of cognitive and language tests, administered by TEDS researchers during visits to family homes. In addition, there was a parent questionnaire and researcher-based assessments of the home environment and aspects of twin behaviour.
Data available in TEDS:Yes.
This sub-study has been treated as a major TEDS study, forming the in-home dataset.
Documents:See the in-home study page for full documentation.

Language telephone tests

Study names:Language tests (part of the TEDS age 14 battery)
Principal investigator:Emma Hayiou-Thomas
Location:York
Focus of study:Language/verbal abilities
Year(s) of study:2008
Number of TEDS families:649
TEDS cohorts:School cohort 1
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Severe medical conditions and special cases
  • Phone problems
  • Twins living outside the UK
  • Families who had opted out of other 14 year study activities
Selection criteria: Families in cohort 1 were selected if both twins had previously completed the language web tests at age 12.
Data collection: Telephone tests administered by phone to twins and recorded onto audio CDs. The tests were administered in TEDS, then the CDs were transported to York University for transcription, coding and analysis.
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents: The actual tests are not documented here, but some details about the administration of the study can be found on the 14 year study page.

LINCS

Study names:LINCS (Linking Cognitive Styles)
Principal investigator:Francesca Happe
Location:SGDP Centre, IOP (KCL)
Focus of study:Cognitive abilities
Year(s) of study:2005
Number of TEDS families:1393
(broadly unselected, no cases or controls)
TEDS cohorts:1996
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Medical exclusions and perinatal outliers
  • E-Risk families
  • OSCCI families
  • SAIL families
  • PHAD families
  • Unknown twin sex or zygosity
  • No TEDS 1st Contact data
  • No TEDS data at 4 or 7
Selection criteria: (none)
Data collection:Twin computer activities at home
(activities run from a CD sent by post; data retrieved via Internet).
A minority of families were subsequently contacted by phone for parent and twin telephone interviews.
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

MRI Conduct

Study names:MRI Conduct,
Emotions and Behaviour Neuroimaging Study,
Psychopathy MRI
Principal investigator:Essi Viding
Location:SGDP Centre, IOP (KCL) and the MRI Unit, Maudsley Hospital
Focus of study:Psychopathy traits
Year(s) of study:2005 to 2006
Number of TEDS families:195
(100 CU+CP, 38 CP-only, 57 controls)
TEDS cohorts:School cohorts 1 and 2 (twins born between January 1994 and August 1995)
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Overseas families
  • Address and phone problems
  • E-Risk families
  • Medical exclusions and perinatal outliers
  • Unknown twin sex or zygosity
  • No TEDS 1st Contact data
  • No TEDS data at 9
Selection criteria:
  • Same-sex male twins (MZ or DZ)
  • Cases: high scores in combined parent-teacher CU (callous-unemotional) and/or CP (SDQ conduct problems) scales at 9
  • Controls: low CU and CP
  • "Normal" scores for hyperactivity and anxiety (parent/teacher SDQ at 9) and IQ ('g' at 9)
Data collection:Families visited the MRI Unit (Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Maudsley Hospital) for twin MRI scans with test activities.
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

MRI Maths

Study names:MRI Maths,
Quantitative Neuroimaging of Mathematics Ability,
Maths Neuroimaging Study
Principal investigator:Yulia Kovas
Location:SGDP Centre, IOP (KCL) and the MRI Unit, Maudsley Hospital
Focus of study:Mathematics abilities
Year(s) of study:2005
Number of TEDS families:68
(39 lows, 29 highs)
TEDS cohorts:1994 and 1995
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Medical exclusions and perinatal outliers
  • E-Risk families
  • OSCCI families
  • ECHO families
  • LINCS families
  • SAIL families
  • PHAD families
  • Overseas families
  • Unknown twin sex or zygosity
  • No TEDS 1st Contact data
  • No TEDS data at 7
Selection criteria:
  • Low or high maths teacher ratings at 7
  • Maths scores at 9 (teacher ratings) and 10 (web test) were also considered on a case-by-case basis
  • "Normal" scores for hyperactivity (teacher SDQ at 7) and IQ ('g' at 7, or Ravens test at 10)
Data collection:Families visited the MRI Unit (Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Maudsley Hospital) for twin MRI scans with test activities.
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

Myopia

Study names:Myopia Study
Principal investigator:Katie Williams, Chris Hammond
Location:Administered partly by TEDS and partly by Katie Williams at St Thomas' Hospital
Focus of study:Cognitive, behavioural, environmental and genetic associations with myopia
Year(s) of study:2012
Number of TEDS families:2625
TEDS cohorts:School cohorts 2, 3 and 4 (twins born between September 1994 and December 1996)
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Medical exclusions and special cases
  • Address and phone problems
  • Inactive
  • Overseas (except for Eire)
  • Not involved in the concurrent wave of the Wellbeing Study
  • Not involved in more than one other concurrent or recently concluded sub-study (E-Risk, Attachment, Biomarkers, SLI, SLA, Wellbeing Pilot)
Selection criteria: Twin pairs were selected if they met either or both of the following criteria:
  • In cohort 2, one or both twins completed the "About You" web questionnaire at age 16 (this questionnaire included eyesight questions)
  • In any cohort, either twin was in the discovery sample of genetic data from the WTCCC study
Data collection: TEDS sent consent forms and questionnaires to the families; these were returned to TEDS, then forwarded to Katie Williams at St Thomas' Hospital.
For consenting families, Katie Williams used the questionnaire information to contact opticians, in order to collect eye test prescription results.
Data available in TEDS:No, except for the screening questions about eyesight in the 16 year web dataset.
Documents:Combined letter, consent and initial questionnaire and the information sheet sent in the invitation pack.

Nuffield

Study names:Nuffield Study
Principal investigator:Kathryn Asbury
Location:Administered partly by TEDS and partly by Kathryn Asbury at York University
Focus of study:Discordance in MZ twin pairs
Year(s) of study:2012 to 2014
Number of TEDS families:2316
TEDS cohorts:School cohorts 2 and 3 (twins born between September 1994 and August 1996)
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Inactive
  • Medical exclusions and special cases
  • Address and phone problems
  • Overseas
  • Cohort 1 (because of concurrent 18 Year study)
  • Cohort 4 (had not yet taken their GCSEs in 2012/13)
  • Involved in other concurrent sub-studies (e.g. Wellbeing, E-Risk)
Selection criteria: Phase 1 (questionnaires):
  • MZ twin pairs
  • Cohorts 2 and 3
Phase 2 (interviews):
  • Discordant twin pairs selected by Kathryn on the basis of the questionnaire data collected in phase 1.
Phase 3 pilot (questionnaires):
  • Same-sex MZ and DZ pairs
  • Cohort 3, aged 18 or over (born before March 1996).
Data collection: In phase 1, 2162 families in cohorts 2 and 3 were sent parent and twin questionnaires which were returned to the TEDS office; the data from the questionnaires (consisting entirely of text responses) were entered and forwarded to Kathryn at York.
In phase 2, families selected from the questionnaire data were contacted by telephone to arrange in-person interviews. The interviews were recorded and later transcribed and coded at York.
In phase 3, for the pilot study, 300 families from cohort 3 were sent twin questionnaires which were returned to the TEDS office. The data were coded and entered in TEDS.
Data available in TEDS:Phase 1: the questionnaire data have been entered in TEDS. However, these data consist entirely of text which has not been coded in TEDS, hence they are only available in raw form.
Phase 2: no data available in TEDS.
Phase 3: the questionnaire data were coded and entered in TEDS, and are available in a double entered dataset.
Kathryn Asbury should be included as co-author in any collaborative project.
Documents: Phase 1 parent questionnaire, twin questionnaire and information sheet.
Phase 3 pilot twin questionnaire.

OSCCI

Study names:OSCCI (Oxford Study of Children's Communication Impairments)
OSCCI-2 for phase 2 of study
Principal investigator:Dorothy Bishop
Location:University of Oxford
Focus of study:Language development
Year(s) of study:Phase 1: 2000 to 2003;
Phase 2: 2003 to 2006
Number of TEDS families:Phase 1: 747 (285 cases, 462 controls)
Phase 2: 305 (all cases)
TEDS cohorts:All
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Medical exclusions
  • E-Risk families (phase 2)
  • Address problems
  • No TEDS data at 4 (for phase 1) or 7 (for phase 2)
Selection criteria:
  • Same-sex twin pairs
  • White ethnic origin
  • English is the only language spoken at home
  • Phase 1: categorised as cases or controls on the basis of TEDS 4 year data
  • Phase 2: EITHER cases from phase 1 OR low scores in the TEDS 7 year TOWRE reading test
Data collection:Home visits for face-to-face testing.
School visits for testing involving teachers.
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

PHAD

Study names:PHAD (Pathways to Hyperactivity and Attention Deficit),
Hyperactivity Study
Principal investigator:Eric Taylor
Location:SGDP Centre, IOP (KCL)
Focus of study:Hyperactivity
Year(s) of study:2003 to 2006
Number of TEDS families:817
(all cases)
TEDS cohorts:All
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Medical exclusions
  • E-Risk families
  • OSCCI families
  • ECHO families
  • Autism study (2001) families
  • SAIL families
  • No TEDS parent or teacher data at 7
Selection criteria:
  • Same-sex twin pairs
  • High score in 7 year hyperactivity scales (parent and/or teacher) for one or both twins
Data collection:Screening questionnaire (sent by post)
followed by home visit involving computer activities.
DNA collected on home visit.
Visit followed up by MRI scan at the IOP in some cases.
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

Perception

Study names:Perception Study,
Face Perception, Faces web study
Principal investigator:Nic Shakeshaft, under the supervision of Robert Plomin
Location:SGDP Centre, IOP (KCL)
Focus of study:Visual perception and memory
Year(s) of study:2013
Number of TEDS families:2382
TEDS cohorts:School cohort 1
(plus 100 families from cohort 2 in the pilot phase)
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Medical exclusions
  • Twins uncontactable by mail or email
Selection criteria: All twins in cohort 1 were invited, along with 100 randomly selected twin pairs from cohort 2.
The study comprised a pilot phase with 100 twin pairs from each of cohorts 1 and 2, followed by a main study phase with the remainder of cohort 1. The measure was not changed after the pilot phase, and the dataset contains data from both the pilot and the main phase.
Data collection: Web battery (tests and questionnaire), administered by TEDS and treated as a main TEDS study.
Data available in TEDS:Yes.
This sub-study has been treated as a major TEDS study, forming part of the 18 year dataset.
Nic Shakeshaft should be included as a co-author in any collaborative project.
Documents:See the 18 year study page for full documentation.

RNA

Study names:RNA Study,
Gene Expression Study
Principal investigator:Emma Meaburn
Location:Administered by TEDS
Focus of study:Gene expression
Year(s) of study:2007
Number of TEDS families:5
TEDS cohorts:1994
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Overseas families
  • Medical conditions
  • Involved in other spin-off studies
Selection criteria:
  • MZ twin pairs
  • Discordant reading scores at 12
Data collection:Families visited the SGDP Centre for face-to-face testing and blood sampling. Visits were repeated (with identical activities and blood sampling) later the same year for reliability testing.
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

SAIL

Study names:SAIL
Principal investigator:Jonna Kuntsi
Focus of study:ADHD
Location:SGDP Centre, IOP (KCL)
Year(s) of study:2003 to 2005
Number of TEDS families:1444
(broadly unselected; no cases or controls)
TEDS cohorts:School cohorts 3 and 4 (twins born between September 1995 and December 1996)
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Medical exclusions and perinatal outliers
  • E-Risk families
  • OSCCI families
  • ECHO families
  • No TEDS data at 4 or 7
  • No TEDS 1st Contact data
  • Unknown zygosity
Selection criteria:
  • Address in south-east England
  • White ethnic origin
Data collection:Families visited the SGDP Centre for face-to-face testing.
DNA collected on visit.
Parent questionnaire administered during visit.
Teacher questionnaires administered by post.
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

SLA

Study names:SLA (Second Language Acquisition)
Principal investigator:Philip Dale
Location:Administered by TEDS
Focus of study:Learning a second language (German)
Year(s) of study:2012
Number of TEDS families:146
TEDS cohorts:School cohort 4 (twins born between September and December 1996)
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Overseas families (except Eire)
  • Uncontactable families (both phone and address problems)
  • Medical exclusions and special cases
  • Families in which either twin had previously learned either German or Dutch
Selection criteria:

The initial sample comprised families in which the parent had completed and returned the language questionnaire (SLQ) at age 14

Data collection: Twins were asked to spend a minimum of 5 hours learning German using the 'Rosetta Stone' software package. Data were collected (on the Rosetta Stone server) by means of tests incorporated within the software package.
Data available in TEDS:Yes.
The twin test scores were extracted from the Rosetta Stone software and were made into a simple double entered twin dataset. The data comprise various scores (Core, Vocabulary, Grammar, Writing, Listening, Speaking, Review) at four levels (1, 2, 3 and 4). Each score has values from 0 to 100. No further documentation of the scores is available.
Philip Dale should be included as co-author in any collaborative project.
Documents: Information sheet

SLI

Study names:SLI (Specific Language Impairment)
Principal investigator:Philip Dale
Location:Administered by TEDS
Focus of study:Language impairment
Year(s) of study:2011 to 2012
Number of TEDS families:670
TEDS cohorts:All
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Overseas families (except Eire)
  • Uncontactable families (both phone and address problems)
  • Medical exclusions
Selection criteria:

The initial sample comprised families who were visited in the TEDS 4 year In Home study (minus exclusions as above)

Data collection: Short telephone test administered to twins.
Data available in TEDS:Yes.
The telephone test responses were scored and entered in TEDS, and are available in a double entered dataset.
Philip Dale should be included as co-author in any collaborative project.
Documents: Twin interview script used by callers.
Twin score sheet used by callers to record responses, annotated to show item response and score variables.

SLQ

Study names:SLQ (Second Language Questionnaire)
Principal investigator:Philip Dale
Location:Administered by TEDS
Focus of study:Second language acquisition
Year(s) of study:2008 to 2011
Number of TEDS families:10,936
TEDS cohorts:All
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Address problems
  • Medical exclusions and special cases
Selection criteria:

The initial intended sample was school cohort 1. However, over the following three years it was extended to cohorts 2, 3 and 4, hence included the entire TEDS sample. This was at least partly because the same questionnaire was used to collect KS3 assessment data.

Data collection: Parent questionnaire.
Data available in TEDS:Yes.
This now forms part of the main TEDS 14 year dataset.
Philip Dale should be included as co-author in any collaborative project involving the second-language measures.
Documents: See pages relating to the 14 year study.

Spatial

Study names:Spatial web studies.
Included three consecutive web studies: Bricks, Kings Challenge and Navigation.
Principal investigator:Nic Shakeshaft, under the supervision of Robert Plomin
Location:SGDP Centre, IOP (KCL)
Focus of study:Spatial cognitive abilities
Year(s) of study:2015
Number of TEDS families:2184 (Bricks), 3042 (Kings Challenge), 5509 (Navigation)
TEDS cohorts:School cohorts 1 and 2
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Medical exclusions
  • Twins uncontactable by mail or email
Selection criteria: Bricks: only families in which both twins had completed the entire battery of 16 year web tests.
Kings Challenge: only families in which both twins had completed at least part of the 16 year web battery.
Navigation: all twins in cohorts 1 and 2 were invited.
Hence the sample was progressively widened from Bricks to Kings Challenge to Navigation, but all were within cohorts 1 and 2.
Data collection: Batteries of web tests, administered as three independent studies by TEDS (and treated as a main TEDS study).
Data available in TEDS:Yes.
This sub-study has been treated as a major TEDS study, forming part of the 18 year dataset.
Nic Shakeshaft should be included as a co-author in any collaborative project.
Documents:See the 18 year study page for full documentation.

SRS

Study names:SRS (Social Relationships Study),
SRS-2 (for phase 2), SRS-3 (for phase 3)
Principal investigator:Francesca Happe
Location:SGDP Centre, IOP (KCL)
Focus of study:Autism
Year(s) of study:Phase 1: 2008 to 2010
Phase 2 (SRS-2): 2013 to 2014
Phase 3 (SRS-3): 2017 to 2019
Number of TEDS families:Phase 1: 1094 (222 cases, 171 unmatched controls, 701 matched controls)
Phase 2: 219 (cases)
Phase 3: 531 (cases and high-trait twins)
TEDS cohorts:All
Families excluded from sample:

All families:

  • Withdrawn
  • Overseas families

Phase 1 control families (matched and unmatched):

  • E-Risk families
  • OSCCI families
  • Medical exclusions
  • Analysis exclusions (perinatal, unknown sex/zygosity, no 1st Contact data, non-white ethnic origin)
  • Address and phone problems
Selection criteria:
  • Cases (phases 1 and 2): all families with known or suspected autism/ASD, from parent contacts and from previous autism studies.
  • Phase 3: additional cases from more recent family reports, plus high-trait twins from TEDS ASD trait measures in more recent studies.
  • Phase 1 all controls (matched and unmatched): address in south-east England
  • Phase 1 unmatched controls: low CAST scores at 8
  • Phase 1 matched controls: low IQ, special needs or learning difficulties (assessed from various sources)
Data collection:Home visits for face-to-face twin testing and parent questionnaires (in phases 2 and 3, families had the option of visiting the SGDP Centre instead).
Phase 1 cases followed up with a second home visit.
DNA collected during visit.
Teacher questionnaires administered by mail.
Siblings assessed initially by postal questionnaire, then followed up at visit if suspected of autism/ASD.
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

Stories

Study names:Stories task from twin 9 year booklet
Principal investigator:Bonny Oliver
Location:Administered by TEDS
Focus of study:Writing abilities
Year(s) of study:2002 to 2004
Number of TEDS families:4076
TEDS cohorts:School cohorts 1 and 2
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Address problems
  • Medical exclusions
Selection criteria:

Twin booklets were sent to all families who had given initial consent to participating in the 9 year booklet study.

Data collection: A measure within the twin booklet.
Data available in TEDS:Yes.
The stories were transcribed into text files, each of which is identified by twin ID number. These files are available for coding but there is no dataset of pre-coded data available. Because of identification issues, special arrangements must be put in place before the story files can be shared outside KCL.
Bonny Oliver should be included as co-author in any collaborative project.
Documents: See pages relating to the 9 year study.

Stuttering

Study names:Stuttering,
Speech Fluency Study
Principal investigator:Katharina Dworzynski
Location:Administered by TEDS
Focus of study:Stuttering
Year(s) of study:2006
Number of TEDS families:321
TEDS cohorts:All
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Medical exclusions and perinatal outliers
  • No TEDS 1st contact data
  • Languages other than English used at home
  • Unknown twin sex/zygosity
  • No TEDS data at 3, 4 or 7
Selection criteria: Twins reported to have stuttering problems at 3, 4 or 7
Data collection:Parents interviewed by telephone
Data available in TEDS:No - although the data were collected by TEDS callers, they were not entered or processed in TEDS.
Documents: Information sheet sent with the initial consent mailing.
Rating scale used by callers to rate and code responses.
(Unfortunately, no copy of the script or interview questions has been retained.)

Twitter

Study names:Twitter,
Social Networks Study
Principal investigator:Claire Haworth, Oliver Davis
Location:Administered by TEDS
Focus of study:Wellbeing measurements from Twitter feeds
Year(s) of study:2012 to 2014
Number of TEDS families:1553
TEDS cohorts:all
Families excluded from sample: -
Selection criteria:
  • Twins from cohorts 2, 3 and 4 who recorded their Twitter usernames in the 16 Year Leap booklet.
  • Twins from all cohorts who sent their Twitter usernames (by email) after an invitation to participate that was advertised in the 2012 TEDS newsletter.
Data collection:Twins who supplied valid Twitter usernames, and their co-twins, were asked to complete a Social Media questionnaire. This questionnaire was collected by TEDS.
For twins found to have valid usernames, Tweets (Twitter messages) were collected and analysed programmatically without the need for further contact with the families. This latter part of the study was administered by Oliver Davis at UCL.
Data available in TEDS:Yes (questionnaire only, not Twitter data).
The Social Media questionnaires were entered by scanning, and late returns were entered manually in TEDS. These questionnaire data are available in the double entered twin dataset.
(However the data harvested electronically from Twitter are not available in TEDS.)
Documents: Twin questionnaire and the accompanying invitation letter and information sheet.
Annotated version of the twin questionnaire, showing dataset coding.

Weight Discordance

Study names:Weight Discordance Study,
Eating-3
Principal investigator:Jane Wardle
Location:University College, London
Focus of study:Eating/diet/weight
Year(s) of study:2006
Number of TEDS families:24
TEDS cohorts:All
Families excluded from sample:

Families were apparently hand-picked by Joanna Ashcroft, then vetted by TEDS on a case-by-case basis.

Selection criteria:

Selection criteria are unclear, but they are based on the 2005 Eating Questionnaire. The selection is unrelated to the earlier Eating Study.

Data collection:Telephone interviews with parents.
Data available in TEDS:No
Documents:-

Wellbeing

Study names:Wellbeing
Principal investigator:Claire Haworth
Location:Administered by TEDS
Focus of study:Twin wellbeing
Year(s) of study:2011 to 2013
Number of TEDS families:1552
TEDS cohorts:School cohorts 3 and 4 (twins born between September 1995 and December 1996)
Families excluded from sample:
  • Withdrawn
  • Inactive
  • Address and phone problems
  • Overseas
  • Unknown twin sex
  • Unknown zygosity (pilot sample and wave 2 only)
  • Medical exclusions and special cases
  • Perinatal outliers (pilot sample only)
  • Missing SES data from 1st Contact (pilot sample only)
  • Participants in other concurrent sub-studies (this varied between phases of the Wellbeing study; relevant sub-studies were Attachment, E-Risk, SLI, SLA)
Selection criteria:
  • Same-sex twin pairs
  • Twins participated in the 12 year web study (pilot sample only)

113 families from cohorts 3 and 4 were selected for the pilot study in 2011;
437 families from cohort 4 were selected for wave 1 of the main study in late 2012;
1002 families from cohort 3 were selected for wave 2 in early 2013.

The initial selection for the pilot study included 20 families in each of 10 groups (5 quintile groups for SES variable 'ases', each divided into two male and female groups). The families in each group were selected at random from larger available numbers meeting the criteria above.

In the main study (waves 1 and 2), an initial pool of families was selected according to the criteria above. Equal numbers of male and female twin pairs were then selected randomly from this pool. In wave 2, as a further constraint, equal numbers of MZ and DZ twin pairs were selected.

Data collection:A series of time-sensitive questionnaires, and requests to carry out practical wellbeing activities, was administered via the web over a period of 9 weeks.
Data available in TEDS:Yes.
The data were collected via a web application on the TEDS web server. The data consist mainly of categorical, numerically coded responses, and these data are available in double entered datasets (there are separate datasets for the pilot study and the main study, because the two phases used slightly different measures).
The text data entered by twins in certain activities have been programmatically coded, and these coded data are also available although the coding process is not fully documented in TEDS. The raw text data do not form part of the datasets.
Claire Haworth should be included as co-author in any collaborative project.
Documents: Weekly order of activities.
Twin activities and parent activities.
Timing and other rules.

Young Sibs

Study names:Young Sibling Study
Principal investigator:Robert Plomin
Location:Administered by TEDS
Focus of study:Comparison of non-twin siblings with twins
Year(s) of study:1997 to 2004
Number of TEDS families:1600
TEDS cohorts:All
Families excluded from sample:
  • No siblings younger than the twins
  • Younger siblings who are themselves twins
  • For the 7 year young sib study, sibs of twins who did not supply data at age 7
  • Withdrawn
  • Address/phone problems
  • Twins are medical exclusions
Selection criteria:

In general, all families of known young siblings of the appropriate age were contacted and asked to participate at each age (2, 3, 4 and 7).

Data collection:Equivalent to the data collected for twins at ages 2, 3, 4 and 7. Child booklets (2, 3, 4) and telephone interviews (7) were the same as those used in the equivalent twin studies. The same parent booklets were used at each age, although parents were instructed to ignore references to 'twins' and to fill in responses for the sibling instead. At age 7, siblings' teachers were contacted using the same teacher questionnaire as used for the twins.
Data available in TEDS:Yes.
The data were coded and entered in TEDS, and are available in single entered sibling datasets. There are separate datasets for the 2, 3, 4 and 7 year data. These datasets include essentially the same variables as in the equivalent twin datasets at these ages. Whereas the double-entered twin variables have names ending in 1 or 2 (denoting twin and co-twin respectively), the equivalent sibling variables have names ending in 3. The sibling datasets can be merged with the twin datasets by matching on the family identifier id_fam.
Documents: The materials used for the young sibling study (booklets, questionnaires, telephone tests) were the same as those used in the corresponding twins studies: see the 2 Year, 3 Year, 4 Year and 7 Year study pages for details.